《Steve Jobs》之政变

“Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?”


寻找CEO

时间来到了1983年,这个时候的乔布斯早已财富名誉双收了。这个时候乔布斯已经做了一件改变世界的事情,那就是推动个人电脑的普及,也就是APPLE II电脑。并且公司也上市了,在个人电脑的市场份额上与IBM分庭抗礼.

年少成名,乔布斯甚至在1982年就登上了时代杂志年度人物的封面。

1982

要知道那个时候他只有26岁。

董事会和他本人都觉得目前都他不适合管理整个公司,所以有意找一个更有经验都人来当CEO。

“Jobs knew that he was not ready to run the company himself, even though there was a part of him that wanted to try. Despite his arrogance, he could be self-aware. Markkula agreed; he told Jobs that he was still a bit too rough-edged and immature to be Apple’s president. So they launched a search for someone from the outside.”,

乔布斯亲自寻找人选来管理这家7年前他和沃兹尼亚克创立的公司。一开始他们直接找到IBM的主管PC部门的经理Don Estridge(在现在很难想象,两家是直接竞争的关系,竟然直接去挖对方核心人物),乔布斯他们一开始想找一个懂技术的来管理这个团队,但是被Estridge拒绝之后,他们转变了思路,寻求一个更懂市场懂人来管理公司。

于是,他们看上了百事可乐的CEO:John Sculley。说服他来苹果乔布斯费了好些功夫。

乔布斯和Sculley的第一次见面在洛杉矶的苹果总部,Sculley认为个人电脑带来的麻烦比它们的价钱更多,而乔布斯则说:

“We want to change the way people use computers,”

第二次见面,则是在纽约,苹果推出了新一代的个人电脑Lisa。在酒店里面,乔布斯迫不及待向Sculley介绍它们的新一代电脑有多么“revolutionary”和“incredible”,乔布斯和Sculley和彻夜长谈。

下次见面,乔布斯则带来还未上市的Mac电脑,跟Scully说:

Jobs wanted Sculley to share his excitement about the Macintosh. “This product means more to me than anything I’ve done,” he said. “I want you to be the first person outside of Apple to see it.”

Macintosh的确对于乔布斯意义非凡,Macintosh也将是一个改变世界的产品——带图形界面的个人电脑的普及

另外,这也是乔布斯摆脱沃兹尼亚克阴影的第一款产品,APPLE I和APPLE II完全是沃兹尼亚克设计的,人们普遍认为沃兹尼亚克的功劳更大。

在又经过了几次见面之后,乔布斯对Sculley说出了那句经典的话:

“Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?”

“你想用余生的时间去卖糖水,还是想要一个机会去改变世界?”

当然光靠梦想是不够,乔布斯还答应给Sculley 100万美元的周薪。

蜜月期

乔布斯和Sculley两人互相欣赏,都觉得对方是及其优秀的人。一开始的合作也是非常愉快的。

“We could complete each other’s sentences because we were on the same wavelength. Steve”

Sculley上任不久,就迎来了苹果最重要的产品的发布:Macintosh。这也是对Sculley的一次重要的考验。

1984年1月22号,Macintosh广告在美国超级碗决赛场上播放,这是世界上第一台采用图形用户界面的个人电脑,与当时采用DOS命令行纯文本用户界面的IBM PC形成了鲜明的对照,它只播放了一次,却造成了空前的轰动,美国的三大电视网和将近50个地方电视台都在超级杯后报道重放了“1984”,还有上百家报刊杂志评

苹果用这个广告讽刺当时市场份额领先的IBM公司,将其比喻邪恶的老大哥,将自己比喻成打破黑暗的。

而在发布会上,乔布斯第一次向世人展示带图形操作界面的个人电脑,并第一次让电脑自己发音。

Macintosh的广告和乔布斯精彩的演讲极大地增加了Macintosh的初期的销量。

这让大家都认为大家做出了一个正确的选择。

““The happiest two days for me were when Macintosh shipped and when John Sculley agreed to join Apple,” he said. “This has been the greatest year I’ve ever had in my whole life, because I’ve learned so much from John.””

分裂

“Their first substantive disagreement was over how to price the Macintosh.”,选自:”Steve Jobs (English Edition)”

他们之间的第一个意见不同就是关于Macintosh的价格问题。Sculley倾向于更高的价格,而乔布斯却一直想做物美价廉的电子产品。

““Don’t worry, I’m not going to let him get away with it!” But in the end, Sculley prevailed. Even twenty-five years later Jobs seethed when recalling the decision: “It’s the main reason the Macintosh sales slowed and Microsoft got to dominate the market.” The decision made him feel that he was losing control of his product and company, and this was as dangerous as making a tiger feel cornered.”,选自:”Steve Jobs (English Edition)”,

但最后是Sculley赢了,25年之后回忆起这件事仍然耿耿于怀,他觉得这是导致Macintosh销售缓慢最终让Microsoft占据市场的主要原因。

由于LISA电脑销量惨淡,后面LISA和Mac部门合并,Sculley让乔布斯一起管理,没想到,乔布斯直接把LISA部门的人炒掉。

““You guys failed,” he said, looking directly at those who had worked on the Lisa. “You’re a B team. B players. Too many people here are B or C players, so today we are releasing some of you to have the opportunity to work at our sister companies here in the valley.””

由于乔布斯过于强势,苹果内部的其它的人都觉得乔布斯完全碾压了Sculley。

即使这个时候,他们之间表面还是很和谐的。

““Apple has one leader,” he said, “Steve and me.” He looked across the room, caught Jobs’s eye, and watched him smile. “It was as if we were communicating with each other,” Sculley recalled. But he also noticed that Arthur Rock and some of the others were looking quizzical, perhaps even skeptical. They were worried that Jobs was completely rolling him.”

危机

第一个吃螃蟹的人多少总会遇到一些不可预知的潜在的危险。Macintosh就是这样的例子,第一个加入图形界面的个人电脑,受限于当时电脑硬件的限制,用户迅速感觉到Macintosh的缓慢卡顿。这给Macintosh的销量带来很大的影响。

“The problem was a fundamental one: It was a dazzling but woefully slow and underpowered computer, and no amount of hoopla could mask that. Its beauty was that its user interface looked like a sunny playroom rather than a somber dark screen with sickly green pulsating letters and surly command lines. But that led to its greatest weakness: A character on a text-based display took less than a byte of code, whereas when the Mac drew a letter, pixel by pixel in any elegant font you wanted, it required twenty or thirty times more memory. The Lisa handled this by shipping with more than 1,000K RAM, whereas the Macintosh made do with 128K.”

销量的惨淡带来的是公司的营收急剧减少,接着就是一个接着一个核心员工的出走,甚至包括了沃兹尼亚克,这个创始人。

“Wozniak decided to leave quietly to start a new company that would make a universal remote control device he had invented. It would control your television, stereo, and other electronic devices with a simple set of buttons that you could easily program. He”,选自:”Steve Jobs (English Edition)”,作者:Walter Isaacson

沃兹尼亚克觉得公司忽视了APPLE II部门,经过APPLE II仍然占了公司很大一部分营收,所以决定自己成立一家公司做一种万能遥控可以控制家里所有电器的设备。可以看到还是这些做技术的人知道技术将怎么发展,虽然他们做不好产品。

沃兹尼亚克是一个口无遮拦的,单纯的黑客,在苹果公司内部一直以一个高级工程师的身份在工作,远离了一切办公室政治。

对于沃兹尼亚克的出走,乔布斯很生气,两人甚至走上了对立的,乔布斯阻止了沃兹尼亚克成立那家做万能遥控设备的公司。

“explaining that he wanted to make sure that Wozniak’s remote wouldn’t look like something made by Apple. “We don’t want to see our design language used on other products. Woz has to find his own resources. He can’t leverage off Apple’s resources; we can’t treat him specially.””,

“People were looking to me to take control, to get him to sit down and shut up, but I didn’t,” Sculley recalled. As the meeting broke up, he heard someone whisper, “Why doesn’t Sculley shut him up?”

摊牌

For Jobs, the problem was that Sculley never became a product person. He didn’t make the effort, or show the capacity, to understand the fine points of what they were making.

乔布斯觉得Sculley始终不懂得产品,

For Sculley, the problem was that Jobs, when he was no longer in courtship or manipulative mode, was frequently obnoxious, rude, selfish, and nasty to other people.

对于Sculley来说则是乔布斯不稳定对性格,暴躁的脾气,粗鲁的行为,以及对待员工的态度。

董事会对乔布斯爱插手Macintosh之外部门的事情感到不满,叫它别插手,随着Macintosh销量的持续下降,许多部门经理开始一起反对乔布斯。

董事会甚至开始讨论要把乔布斯从Macintosh部门总移除掉。

摊牌的日子到了:

Sculley带着人力资源的人到乔布斯面前,跟他说希望他离开Macintosh部门,转而去运作一些前瞻性的部门。

一开始,Sculley还是非常客气,非常婉转的说出这个决定:

“There is no one who admires your brilliance and vision more than I do,”

“But this is really not going to work,”

“We have developed a great friendship with each other,”

“but I have lost confidence in your ability to run the Macintosh division.”

没想到,乔布斯的反应却非常强烈,甚至哭起来,我觉得难以理解的时候,为什么乔布斯会哭,一个大男人,都三十岁了,在众人面前?

He told Sculley he knew nothing about computers, was doing a terrible job running the company, and had disappointed Jobs ever since coming to Apple. Then he began to cry. Sculley sat there biting his fingernails.

Sculley等了一会,

“I’m going to bring this up with the board,” Sculley declared. “I’m going to recommend that you step down from your operating position of running the Macintosh division. I want you to know that.” He urged Jobs not to resist and to agree instead to work on developing new technologies and products.

而乔布斯直接跳起来,盯着Sculley说:如果你敢这样做,将会摧毁整个公司。

4月11号,Sculley宣布了这个决定,让董事会决定,在董事会上,乔布斯反击Sculley,试图让董事会炒掉Sculley,当然最后的结果,是董事会同意给Sculley权利让他在合适的时候执行这个决定——将乔布斯从Macintosh部门中移除。

乔布斯也尝试向Sculley求情,请他再给自己一些时间,证明他有能力管理Macintosh部门。但是Sculley拒绝了。

接着乔布斯直接叫Sculley辞职。

“You were really great the first year, and everything went wonderful. But something happened.”

平常脾气非常好的Sculley,这下彻底火了:

Jobs had been unable to get Macintosh software developed, come up with new models, or win customers.

最后演变成两个人争吵关于谁是更糟糕的管理者。

政变

乔布斯得不到董事会的支持,于是他寻求政变。

于是一个契机到来了,乔布斯被邀请去中国人民大会堂签署输出个人电脑到中国的商业大单。

Months earlier, Apple had gotten the right to export computers to China, and Jobs had been invited to sign a deal in the Great Hall of the People over the 1985 Memorial Day weekend.

但是Sculley决定自己去,这正好给了乔布斯的机会,他打算在他去的这段时间发动政变:

他将这个计划告诉了许多他自认为信任得的人,包括Mike Murray.

He also confided in the corporate human resources director, Jay Elliot, who told him bluntly that the proposed rebellion wouldn’t work. Elliot had talked to some board members and urged them to stand up for Jobs, but he discovered that most of the board was with Sculley, as were most members of Apple’s senior staff.

他将这个计划告诉了人力资源部的Elliot,但Elliot告诉乔布斯,大部分董事会的人都支持Sculley,这次政变不会成功的。

然后乔布斯将这个计划告诉一个不应该告诉的人:

He even revealed his plans to Gassée on a walk around the parking lot, despite the fact that Gassée had come from Paris to take his job. “I made the mistake of telling Gassée,” Jobs wryly conceded years later.

Gassée 当晚就告诉了Sculley。于是历史进程就因此改变了,Sculley取消去中国的计划。

隔天早上,在executive staff meeting上, Sculley直接质问乔布斯,这件事是否属实。

乔布斯直接说:

“I think you’re bad for Apple, and I think you’re the wrong person to run the company,” he replied, coldly and slowly. “You really should leave this company. You don’t know how to operate and never have.”

Sculley彻底火了,直接叫董事会其它成语在他和乔布斯之间选一个:

‘It’s me or Steve, who do you vote for?’

于是,董事会的成员们,一个一个用”I like …. But …”的说法,几乎都选择了Sculley。

每个人发言的时候,乔布斯都死盯着他们。

乔布斯摔门而出。

到了他自己的办公室,把他们部门几个人都叫过来,哭了起来。

而Sculley也没有因为得到了支持而满心欢喜,这是一场没有赢家的政变。Sculley提前下班,他向Eisenstat透漏想辞职的想法:

“I don’t know whether I can go through with this.” When Eisenstat asked what he meant, Sculley responded, “I think I’m going to resign.”

Sculley的妻子非常意外看到自己的丈夫提前这么早下班回到家里,Sculley向他妻子讲述了这个过程,而他妻子听了之后愤愤不平,直接开车找乔布斯,

“Steve, can I talk to you?” she said. His jaw dropped. “Do you have any idea what a privilege it has been even to know someone as fine as John Sculley?” she demanded. He averted his gaze. “Can’t you look me in the eyes when I’m talking to you?” she asked. But when Jobs did so— giving her his practiced, unblinking stare— she recoiled. “Never mind, don’t look at me,” she said. “When I look into most people’s eyes, I see a soul. When I look into your eyes, I see a bottomless pit, an empty hole, a dead zone.” Then she walked away.

乔布斯恶狠狠的盯着她,说她的眼睛空洞无物犹如一个死亡区域。

It finally sank in. Jobs realized there was no appeal, no way to warp the reality. He broke down in tears and started making phone calls— to Bill Campbell, Jay Elliot, Mike Murray, and others. Murray’s wife, Joyce, was on an overseas call when Jobs phoned, and the operator broke in saying it was an emergency. It better be important, she told the operator. “It is,” she heard Jobs say. When her husband got on the phone, Jobs was crying. “It’s over,” he said. Then he hung up.

乔布斯把自己关在房间里痛苦。

尾声

“回顾早期的岁月,他并不是伟大的高级管理人员。我们今天所认识的伟大的史蒂夫?乔布斯,也许是世界上最伟大的首席执行官,当然也是我们这个时代最伟大的首席执行官,他在那些年的放逐岁月里学了很多东西。”

 斯卡利最大的遗憾是什么?“我觉得最大的遗憾是,在10年后,我还在苹果公司任职,我想回到纽约去,我原先是从那儿来的。我为什么没有去找史蒂夫?乔布斯,对他说:‘史蒂夫,让我们想办法,你怎么才能回来领导你的公司。’我没有那样做,这是我犯下的可怕错误。我不明白我当初为什么没有智慧这样做。但是我的确没有。生活就是如此,此后不久,我被解雇了。”


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